Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Novel Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs: What we have Learned from Animal Studies

Buy Article:

$68.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

The use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is frequently associated with serious adverse effects related to the inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX) in tissues where prostanoids exert physiological effects, such as gastric mucosal defence, renal homeostasis and platelet aggregation. The discovery of a second COX isoform (COX-2) specifically induced in pathological tissues led to the development of selective COX-2 inhibitors, believed to have an improved safety profile compared to traditional NSAIDs. Animal studies, however, have revealed a protective role for the COX-2 enzyme in the stomach, kidney, heart, vasculature and reproductive system, and therefore, the safety of COX-2 selective inhibitors needs to be reassessed. On the other hand, new therapeutic indications have emerged as a result of the role played by COX-2 overexpression in cancer or Alzheimer's disease. A second approach aimed at obtaining safer NSAIDs is based on the gastroprotective effects of nitric oxide (NO). Traditional NSAIDs chemically linked to NO-releasing moieties retain the therapeutic efficacy, but not the adverse effects, of the parent NSAIDs. Moreover, additional therapeutic applications in cardiovascular diseases, Alzheimer's disease and cancer have been suggested. Animal data, however, need to be confirmed in large clinical trials. Finally, the increase in endogenous NO via a selective increase in inducible NO synthase in the gastric mucosa is the mechanism underlying the good gastric tolerability and the gastroprotective effects of the non-selective NSAID amtolmetin guacyl, documented to date in the rat.
No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: amtolmetin guacyl; cyclooxygenase-2; nitric oxide; non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

Document Type: Review Article

Affiliations: Dept. Human Anatomy, Pharmacology and Forensic Medicine, Section of Pharmacology, Via Volturno 39, 43100 Parma, Italy;

Publication date: March 1, 2004

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more