Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Impaired Glycogen Synthase Activity and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Skeletal Muscle: Markers or Mediators of Insulin Resistance in Type 2 Diabetes?

Buy Article:

$68.00 + tax (Refund Policy)

Insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is a major hallmark of type 2 diabetes and an early detectable abnormality in the development of this disease. The cellular mechanisms of insulin resistance include impaired insulin-mediated muscle glycogen synthesis and increased intramyocellular lipid content, whereas impaired insulin activation of muscle glycogen synthase represents a consistent, molecular defect found in both type 2 diabetic and high-risk individuals. Despite several studies of the insulin signaling pathway believed to mediate dephosphorylation and hence activation of glycogen synthase, the molecular mechanisms responsible for this defect remain unknown. Recently, the use of phosphospecific antibodies in human diabetic muscle has revealed hyperphosphorylation of glycogen synthase at sites not regulated by the classical insulin signaling pathway. In addition, novel approaches such as gene expression analysis and proteomics have pointed to abnormalities in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and cellular stress in muscle of type 2 diabetic subjects, and recent work suggests that impaired mitochondrial activity is another early defect in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. This review will discuss the latest advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle in type 2 diabetes with focus on possible links between impaired glycogen synthase activity and mitochondrial dysfunction.





No References
No Citations
No Supplementary Data
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Glycogen synthase; Insulin resistance; Insulin signaling; Muscle mitochondria; Proteomics; Type 2 diabetes

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: November 1, 2006

More about this publication?
  • Current Diabetes Reviews publishes frontier reviews on all the latest advances on diabetes and its related areas e.g. pharmacology, pathogenesis, complications, epidemiology, clinical care, and therapy.

    The journal's aim is to publish the highest quality review articles dedicated to clinical research in the field. The journal is essential reading for all researchers and clinicians who are involved in the field of diabetes.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
X
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more