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Promoting Inter-/Intra- Cellular Process of Nanomedicine through its Physicochemical Properties Optimization

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Background: Nanomedicine, which is defined as application of nanoparticles in medicine, has offered new hopes for overcoming the drawbacks appeared in traditional chemotherapy. The size of nanomedicine normally in the range from 1 to 200 nm endows its potential applications in cancer therapy. But in clinics, there is still a gap between the in vitro physicochemical properties and the cellular level performance.

Method: The physicochemical properties include size, shape, surface chemistry, surface topology, and surface properties strongly affect nanomedicine inter-/intra-cellular efficiency. Herein, this article reviews effects of physicochemical properties of nanomedicine on the cellular endocytosis and intracellular route. And strategies of nanomedicine optimization are also discussed from different perspectives.

Results: On the one hand, not as that of the traditional small molecular agents, the cellular endocytosis pathway and efficiency of nanomedicine is related to its size, structure and surface properties. On the other hand, the intracellular conditions also affect the intracellular route of nanomedicine.

Conclusion: Nanomedicine of different scale size is internalized through different pathways. While different sensitivities to intracellular conditions determined by physicochemical properties of nanomedicine will lead to different cellular consumption. So, both the properties of nanomedicine and the intracellular conditions play important roles in cellular metabolism. Consequently, nanocarriers finely engineered as the above principles can provide practical solution to the problems appeared in cellular level for promoting traditional cancer therapy.
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Keywords: Nanomedicine; cancer therapy; endocytosis; intracellular metabolism; physicochemical properties; structure optimization

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: January 1, 2018

This article was made available online on January 19, 2018 as a Fast Track article with title: "Promoting Inter-/Intra- Cellular Process of Nanomedicine through its Physicochemical Properties Optimization".

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  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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