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Pharmacogenetics of Metabolic Genes of Anthracyclines in Acute Myeloid Leukemia

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Background: Anthracyclines in combination with cytarabine have been the standard therapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) for decades with high efficacy. However, the majority of patients will show initial resistance or will relapse after initial complete remission. Genetic variability in genes involved in anthracyclines metabolic pathway could be one of the causes of the interindividual differences in clinical outcomes.

Methods: A systematic review of published studies in AML cohorts was carried out in order to analyze the influence of polymorphisms in genes of anthracycline metabolism on efficacy and toxicity.

Results: Polymorphisms in the main enzymes of anthracyclines metabolism (CBR, AKR, NQO1, NOS3) have been related to lower enzymatic activity and higher cardiotoxicity. Moreover, variant alleles in the genes of carcinogens and chemotherapy neutralizing enzymes (GST, SULT, NADP(H) oxidase) have been associated with ROS generation and drug efficacy, influencing the survival rates and cardiac toxicities. In addition, genetic variability in the transporters of anthracyclines could affect the intake in cells, including influx (SLC28A3, SLC22A12, SLCO1B1) and efflux transporters (ABCB1, ABCC1, ABCC3, ABCG2).

Conclusion: The knowledge of the role of pharmacogenetics in anthracyclines metabolism could explain the differences observed in their disposition in leukemic cells. These genetic variants are proposed biomarkers in clinical practice in order to individualize chemotherapy schemes, potentially increasing the effectiveness and reducing the toxicities.
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Keywords: Anthracyclines; SNP; acute myeloid leukemia; daunorubicin; idarubicin; metabolism; polymorphism

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: January 1, 2018

This article was made available online on November 28, 2017 as a Fast Track article with title: "Pharmacogenetics of Metabolic Genes of Anthracyclines in Acute Myeloid Leukemia".

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  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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