Factors Affecting the Pharmacokinetics, Biodistribution and Toxicity of Gold Nanoparticles in Drug Delivery
Owing to the straightforward synthesis, good biological compatibility, and ease of surface functionalization, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have shown great potential in various biomedical applications, including diagnostic imaging, photothermal therapy (PTT), and drug delivery. Physicochemical properties (e.g. shape, size and surface chemistry) may potentially affect the interaction of AuNPs with biological systems, thus ultimately influencing their cell uptake, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, drug delivery efficiency, and biological effects. This review focuses on recent advances in understanding the relation between physicochemical characteristics of AuNPs and their navigation through different biological processes, including biodistribution, penetration of biological barriers (e.g. blood-brain barrier), clearance, and metabolism. Furthermore, the in vitro and in vivo toxicological effects of AuNPs and their possible mechanisms were discussed. A thorough understanding of these influencing factors will be crucial for the rational design, customized functionalization, and clinical translation of AuNPs in drug delivery.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2016
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- Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:
In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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