Role of Membrane Transporters and Metabolizing Enzymes in Ocular Drug Delivery
Ocular disorders can significantly lower a patient’s quality of life. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Vision Health Initiative have estimated that the number of people affected by age-related ocular diseases may be doubled in the United States by 2030. Although availability of newer therapeutics has improved the prognosis of ocular diseases, poor ocular bioavailability still remains a major concern. Combinations of pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic barriers have been known to determine the amount of drug delivered to the target tissue. However, presence of membrane transporters and metabolizing enzymes pose a significant challenge to ocular drug disposition. Scientific literature confirms the expression of efflux/ATP-binding cassette transporters, influx/solute carrier transporters and several metabolic enzymes including oxidoreductases, hydrolases and transferases in different ocular tissues. Therefore, this review article describes the anatomical features of the eye and various barriers regulating ocular drug disposition. Differential expression of membrane transporters and metabolizing enzymes in normal and diseased states are briefly discussed. Further, the significance of transporter- metabolism interplay in ophthalmic drug design and various ocular drug delivery strategies are also outlined.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 2014
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- Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:
In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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