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Transcriptional Regulation of CYP2C19 and its Role in Altered Enzyme Activity

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Cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) is involved in the metabolism of several drugs that are currently in clinical use. The gene encoding CYP2C19 is polymorphic with the existence of different alleles resulting in altered enzyme activity. In addition, CYP2C19 activity is also dependent on its basal expression levels determined by the transcriptional regulation. Genetic variations located in the CYP2C19 promoter region may alter the interaction of promoter with transcription factors causing variable transcription. Genetic variants may also influence the induction, inhibition of CYP2C19 and may as well affect drug-drug interactions involving CYP2C19 substrates. The role of various transcription factors and genetic variants in the promoter region of CYP2C19 regulating its expression are discussed in this review. Furthermore, induction and inhibition of CYP2C19 by various drugs in clinically meaningful drug interactions are also discussed.
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Keywords: CYP2C19; Cytochrome P450; GRE; PPIs; Transcriptional Regulation; drug interaction; endogenous factors; extensive metabolizers; genetic variants; genotype-phenotype association; hydrogen bond acceptors; induction; inhibition; intermediate metabolizers; promoter; transcription; transcription factor

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2012

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  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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