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Disposition of Nanoparticle-Based Delivery System via Inner Ear Administration

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The inner ear is difficult to access by conventional systemic drug delivery due to formidable physiological and anatomic barriers. There is an increasing interest in the treatment of inner ear disorders by topical application of drugs to the inner ear. One of the most important issues to overcome before full clinical application is the development of smart delivery systems for drugs to the target sites and controlled release in the inner ear. This is an area where nanoparticles will play an extremely important role. These submicron particles have exhibited improved biocompatibility, in vivo stability, target specificity, and cell/tissue uptake and internalization of the encapsulated therapeutic agents, leading to a decrease in the dose required and a decrease in side effects. This unique combination of properties makes nanoparticles a novel delivery device, which fulfils the requirements for inner ear application. This review will summarize recent findings and applications of various nanoparticle-based systems like poly (D, L-lactic/glycolic acid) nanoparticles, magnetic nanoparticles, lipid nanoparticles, liposomes, polymersomes, hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, and silica nanoparticles in the field of inner ear drug delivery. Moreover, the review will provide an insight into the future strategies of nanoparticle-based cochlear drug delivery. In conjunction, physiological considerations related to inner ear administration will be highlighted. The routes and applications for local inner- ear drug delivery will also be mentioned. In closing, this review will give an overview of the potential future development in inner ear administration with nanoparticles.

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Keywords: Corti's liquid; Nanoparticles; Reissner's membrane; Rhodamine; Rosenthal's canal; anatomic barri-ers; blood capillaries; blood-inner ear barrier; cerebrospinal fluid; cochlea; concentration; configuration; dimethylsulfoxide; green fluorescent protein; hyaluronic acid; hydroxyapatite nanoparticles; intratympanic administration; intratympanic injection; lipid nanoparticles; liposolubility; liposomes; local drug delivery; maghemite; magnetite; microhomeostasis; micropinocytic vesicles; osmotic effects; otologic treatments; perilymph; pheochromocytoma cells; polymersomes; round window; round window membrane; scala tympan; scala vestibuli; sensorineural; spiral ganglion; therapeutic agents; tunnel fibers; tympani; tympanic membrane

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2010

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  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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