Cigarette Smoking, Metabolic Activation and Carcinogenesis
Epidemiologically, it has been suggested that cigarette smoking is closely associated with an increased risk of cancers in various organs such as the lung, oropharynx, stomach, pancreas, liver and colon. Nevertheless, influences of cigarette smoking on experimental tumorigenesis in organs other than the respiratory tract remain to be elucidated. In our experimental studies, it has been shown that cigarette smoke exposure induces hepatic CYP enzymes, especially CYP1A2, in both rats and hamsters, and S9 fraction from their livers exposed to cigarette smoke specifically increases the mutagenicity in Ames assay of various heterocyclic amines (HCAs) contained in cigarette smoke and cooked food, which is in good agreement with the fact that HCAs are principally activated by CYP1A2 to proximate carcinogens. In fact, cigarette smoke exposure enhanced liver carcinogenesis in rats induced by 2-amino-3, 8-dimethylimidazo[4, 5- f]quinoxaline (MeIQx), a major HCA. Furthermore, in our recent study, it was also shown that cigarette smoke exposure induces hepatic CYP2A8 in hamsters, which is homologous to CYP2A6 in human, and hepatic S9 fraction exposed to cigarette smoke increases the mutagenicity of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK), a tobacco specific nitrosamine, which is in line with the fact that NNK is metabolically activated by CYP2A6. Keeping these data, the aim of this review is to discuss any relevancy of modulated metabolic activation by cigarette smoking to cancer risk in human.
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Document Type: Review Article
Affiliations: Division of Pathology, National Institute of Health Sciences, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 158-8501, Japan.
Publication date: October 1, 2004
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- Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:
In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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