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Heterotropic Cooperativity of Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Potential Drug-Drug Interactions

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Cytochromes P450 (CYP) 3A4 is the most abundant human hepatic CYP isoform catalyzing the metabolism of approximately 50percent of therapeutic agents. In addition to inhibition or induction, CYP3A4 is subject to stimulation, termed homotropic (substrate stimulation) and heterotropic (stimulation by effectors) cooperativity. The heterotropic cooperativity of CYP3A4 may result from an increase in Vmax, a decrease in Km or a combination of the two and sometimes exhibits regio-selectivity when the enzyme is involved in two or more metabolic pathways for a single substrate. An effector of CYP3A4 can also be a substrate its metabolism may or may not be inhibited by another substrate. These characteristics of heterotropic cooperativity of CYP3A4 have been interpreted in the context of two binding domains in the active site of the enzyme, two substrate binding plus a distinct allosteric binding site, multiple enzyme conformations or multiple binding sites accompanied by conformational changes.

Examples of in vivo CYP cooperativity are rare representative cases include flavone-dependent stimulation of zoxazolamine metabolism in rats and enhancement of CYP3A-mediated hepatic clearance of diclofenac by quinidine in monkeys. Effector-induced increases in CYP3A4 activity were observed during the 1c-hydroxylation of midazolam and 4c- and 10-hydroxylation of warfarin in human hepatocyte systems. These data imply that CYP cooperativity has the potential to cause in vivo drug-drug interactions. Because cooperative and inhibitory responses from CYP3A4 are known to be substrate-dependent, projection of the pharmacokinetics of an investigational drug and CYP-associated risks of drug-drug interactions in humans can be very complex. Further investigation of CYP cooperativity is warranted.
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Keywords: 3-Hydroxy aflatoxin B 1; 7, 8-Benzoflavone 5, 6-oxide; Aflatoxin B 1 8,9-oxide; Aflatoxin B1; Cytochrome P450 3A4; Diclofenac; Losartan; QUINIDINE; Warfarin

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: June 1, 2001

More about this publication?
  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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