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Mechanisms of Inhibitory and Regulatory Effects of Methylenedioxyphenyl Compounds on Cytochrome P450-Dependent Drug Oxidation

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Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes catalyse the oxidative conversion of drugs and other lipophilic compounds to hydrophilic metabolites. Thus, CYPs play a dominant role in the elimination of drugs from the body. Inhibitory interactions occur when drugs compete for oxidation by specific CYPs whereas certain drugs increase the capacity for oxidative biotransformation by inducing the synthesis of new CYPs.

Methylenedioxyphenyl (MDP) compounds have been widely employed as commercially important pesticide synergists and a number of derivatives are found in oils and spices. MDP compounds are of considerable toxicological significance because of their capacity to inhibit and induce CYP enzymes in mammals; some derivatives produce neurotoxic and hepatotoxic effects. Although there are relatively few therapeutic agents of present clinical importance that possess the MDP structural feature, the synthesis and preclinical evaluation of such agents appears to be increasing. In the context of the existing literature surrounding MDP compounds it is noteworthy that these potential drugs also elicit significant modulatory effects on CYP activities in rat and human liver. These developments indicate the importance of understanding the chemical mechanisms by which MDPs interact with CYPs. Thus, the presence of the MDP structure may undermine the potential clinical value of new drugs.
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Keywords: CYP activity; Cytochrome P450 CYP enzymes; Methylenedioxyphenyl MDP; P450 inhibition; Xenobiotics

Document Type: Review Article

Publication date: July 1, 2000

More about this publication?
  • Current Drug Metabolism aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments in drug metabolism and disposition. The journal serves as an international forum for the publication of timely reviews in drug metabolism. Current Drug Metabolism is an essential journal for academic, clinical, government and pharmaceutical scientists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with the latest and most important developments. The journal covers the following areas:

    In vitro systems including CYP-450; enzyme induction and inhibition; drug-drug interactions and enzyme kinetics; pharmacokinetics, toxicokinetics, species scaling and extrapolations; P-glycoprotein and transport carriers; target organ toxicity and interindividual variability; drug metabolism and disposition studies; extrahepatic metabolism; phase I and phase II metabolism; recent developments for the identification of drug metabolites and adducts.
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