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Nose to Brain Delivery of Nanoformulations for Neurotherapeutics in Parkinson’s Disease: Defining the Preclinical, Clinical and Toxicity Issues

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Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is depicted as the most prevailed neurodegenerative disease being secondary to the Alzheimer’s disease. PD is featured by severe dropping of dopamine related neurons present in substantia nigra as well as cytoplasmic inclusions. A number of therapeutic agents are available to treat initial as well as later complications of PD. However, transport of neurotherapeutics into the brain has been a consistent challenge for researchers, because of the existence of blood-brain barrier (BBB). In some last decades, nasal delivery pathway has gained extensive deliberations. Intranasal administration as a way to target neurotherapeutics to the central nervous system bypassing blood brain barrier, exhibit several advantages for treating neurodegenerative disorders. This route for transport of neurotherapeutics offers the merits of convenience of administration, avoidance of pre-systemic hepatic metabolism, and non- invasiveness.

Methods: Novel nano-sized formulations researched for intranasal transport of various actives have been reviewed using search engine “Scopus”. Feasibility of various nano-carriers systems such as nanoemulsions, lipid nanoparticles and polymeric micelles has been elaborated. The write up traces the preclinical and pharmacokinetic aspects of the nano-formulations.

Results: Nano-formulations are the rising formulations in PD treatment as they offer targeted drug delivery, enhanced therapeutic efficacy and decreased systemic side effects of neurotherapeutics. These formulations provide effective intranasal transport by encapsulating drug, protecting it from biological/ chemical degradation and extracellular transport through P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux thus, and enhancing CNS availability for drugs.

Conclusion: Thus, it can be put into conclusion that nano-neurotechnology; particularly application of nanotechnology has yielded potential outcomes in upcoming years.
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Keywords: Nanoformulations; Parkinson’s disease; neuro-therapeutics; nose to brain delivery; preclinical aspects

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2016

More about this publication?
  • The aim of Current Drug Delivery is to publish peer-reviewed articles, short communications, short and in-depth reviews in the rapidly developing field of drug delivery. Modern drug research aims to build in delivery properties of a drug at the design phase, however in many cases this ideal cannot be met and the development of delivery systems becomes as important as the development as the drugs themselves.

    The journal aims to cover the latest outstanding developments in drug and vaccine delivery employing physical, physico-chemical and chemical methods. The drugs include a wide range of bioactive compounds from simple pharmaceuticals to peptides, proteins, nucleotides, nucleosides and sugars. The journal will also report progress in the fields of transport routes and mechanisms including efflux proteins and multi-drug resistance.

    The journal is essential for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug design, development and delivery.
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