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Recent Progress in Mutation-driven Therapy, Immunotherapy and Combination Therapy for the Treatment of Melanoma

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With increases in our understanding of the human genome and immune system, the treatment armamentarium for melanoma has benefitted from the development and approval of BRAF inhibitors, MEK inhibitors, immune checkpoint modulators via cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 blockade, and PD-1 and PD-L1 inhibitors. These advances, however, have raised questions about combination therapy, the optimal sequential use of these agents, the limited assessment of response using traditional metrics, and the optimal selection of the population to be treated. In this review we summarize recent breakthroughs and then itemize the development of newer agents, potential prognostic and predictive biomarkers, resistance mechanisms, and strategies of combination therapy. We also emphasize the multifaceted attributes of immunotherapy in terms of durable responses and longterm survival that paradoxically necessitate further research into the underlying mechanisms and longer patient follow-up.
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Keywords: BRAF inhibitors; CTLA-4 inhibitors; MEK inhibitors; Melanoma; PD-1 inhibitors; PD-L1 inhibitors; immunotherapy; mutationdriven therapy

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2017

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  • Current Cancer Drug Targets aims to cover all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, pharmacology, molecular biology, genomics and biochemistry of contemporary molecular drug targets involved in cancer, e.g. disease specific proteins, receptors, enzymes, genes.
    Each issue of the journal contains a series of timely in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field covering a range of current topics on drug targets involved in cancer.
    As the discovery, identification, characterization and validation of novel human drug targets for anti-cancer drug discovery continues to grow; this journal has become essential reading for all pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and development.
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