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Structure and Antioxidant Catalytic Function of Plant Glutathione Transferases

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Plant cytosolic glutathione transferases (GSTs) are an ancient enzyme superfamily with multiple and diverse functions which are important in counteracting biotic and abiotic stresses. GSTs play an important role in catalyzing the conjugation of xenobiotics and endogenous electrophilic compounds with glutathione (GSH), such as pesticides, chemical carcinogens, environmental pollutants, which leads to their detoxification. GSTs not only catalyze detoxification reactions but they are also involved in GSH-dependent isomerization reactions, in GSH-dependent reduction of organic hydroperoxides formed during oxidative stress, biosynthesis of sulfur-containing secondary metabolites, and exhibit thioltransferase and dehydroascorbate reductase activity. This review focuses on plant GSTs, and attempts to give an overview of the new insights into the catalytic function and structural biology of these enzymes.

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Keywords: Alopecurus myosuroides; Antioxidant; Arabidopsis thaliana; Catalytic Function; DNA; Electrophilic Binding Site; Glutathione transferase; Ligand Binding Site; abiotic stress; anticancer drugs; apoplast; arene oxides; ascorbic acid; biotic stress; catabolite repression; catalytic site; cell death; cell proliferation; cellular structure destruction; chloroplasts; cytosolic; dimerization; electrophilic centers; endogenous; enzymes; epoxides; flavonoids; herbicide detoxification; herbicide treatment; hydrogen bonds; hydrophilic; isoenzymes; isomerization reactions; ligand-binding; metabolic pathways; metabolites; microsomal proteins; mitochondrial; monomeric; non-catalytically; non-controlled oxidation; nucleotide sequence; organic hydroperoxides; organic nitrate esters; organic thiocyanates; oxygen toxicity; oxylipins; pathogen attack; peroxidase activity; peroxisome; phenolics; selenium-dependent; sulfur; thiol grou; thiolate; toxins; unsaturated carbonyls; volatiles; xenobiotic

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2011

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  • Current Chemical Biology aims to publish full-length and mini reviews on exciting new developments at the chemistry-biology interface, covering topics relating to Chemical Synthesis, Science at Chemistry-Biology Interface and Chemical Mechanisms of Biological Systems.

    Current Chemical Biology covers the following areas: Chemical Synthesis (Syntheses of biologically important macromolecules including proteins, polypeptides, oligonucleotides, oligosaccharides etc.; Asymmetric synthesis; Combinatorial synthesis; Diversity-oriented synthesis; Template-directed synthesis; Biomimetic synthesis; Solid phase biomolecular synthesis; Synthesis of small biomolecules: amino acids, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates and nucleosides; and Natural product synthesis).

    Science at Chemistry-Biology Interface (Chemical informatics; Macromolecular catalysts and receptors; Enzymatic synthesis; Biosynthetic engineering; Combinatorial biosynthesis; Plant cell based chemistry; Bacterial and viral cell based chemistry; Chemistry of cellular processes in plants/animals; Receptor chemistry; Cell signaling chemistry; Drug design through understanding of disease processes; Synthetic biology; New high throughput screening techniques; Small molecular array fabrication; Chemical genomics; Chemical and biological approaches to carbohydrates proteins and nucleic acids design; Chemical and biological regulation of biosynthetic pathways; and Unnatural biomolecular analogs).
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