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A Computational Model for Docking of Noncompetitive Neuraminidase Inhibitors and Probing their Binding Interactions with Neuraminidase of Influenza Virus H5N1

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Background: With cases of emergence of drug resistance to the current competitive inhibitors of neuraminidase (NA) such as oseltamivir and zanamavir, there is a present need for an alternative approach in the treatment of avian influenza. With this in view, some flavones and chalcones were designed based on quercetin, the most active naturally occurring noncompetitive inhibitor.

Objective: We attempt to understand the binding of quercetin to H5N1-NA, and synthetic analogs of quercetin namely flavones and its precursors the chalcones using computational tools.

Methods: Molecular docking was done using Libdock. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed using Amber14. We synthesized the two compounds; their structures were confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, 1H-NMR, and mass spectrometry. These molecules were then tested for H5N1-NA inhibition and kinetics of inhibition.

Results: Molecular docking studies yielded two compounds i.e., 4’-methoxyflavone and 2’-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone, as promising leads which identified them as binders of the 150-cavity of NA. Furthermore, MD simulation studies revealed that quercetin and the two compounds bind and hold the 150 loop in its open conformation, which ultimately perturbs the binding of sialic acid in the catalytic site. Estimation of the free energy of binding by MM-PBSA portrays quercetin as more potent than chalcone and flavone. These molecules were then determined as non-competitive inhibitors from the Lineweaver-Burk plots rendered from the enzyme kinetic studies.

Conclusion: We conclude that non-competitive type of inhibition, as shown in this study, can serve as an effective method to block NA and evade the currently seen drug resistance.
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Keywords: Docking; H5N1; MM-PBSA; enzyme kinetics; molecular dynamics; neuraminidase; noncompetitive inhibitor

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2016

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  • Current Computer-Aided Drug Design aims to publish all the latest developments in drug design based on computational techniques. The field of computer-aided drug design has had extensive impact in the area of drug design. Current Computer-Aided Drug Design is an essential journal for all medicinal chemists who wish to be kept informed and up-to-date with all the latest and important developments in computer-aided methodologies and their applications in drug discovery. Each issue contains a series of timely, in-depth reviews written by leaders in the field, covering a range of computational techniques for drug design, screening, ADME studies, etc., providing excellent rationales for drug development.
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