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Adenosine Analogues as Opposite Modulators of the Cisplatin Resistance of Ovarian Cancer Cells

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Background: Adenosine released by cancer cells in high amounts in the tumour microenvironment is one of the main immunosuppressive agents responsible for the escape of cancer cells from immunological control. Blocking adenosine receptors with adenosine analogues and restoring immune cell activity is one of the methods considered to increase the effectiveness of anticancer therapy. However, their direct effects on cancer cell biology remain unclear. Here, we determined the effect of adenosine analogues on the response of cisplatinsensitive and cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin treatment.

Methods: The effects of PSB 36, DPCPX, SCH58261, ZM 241385, PSB603 and PSB 36 on cisplatin cytotoxicity were determined against A2780 and A2780cis cell lines. Quantification of the synergism/ antagonism of the compounds cytotoxicity was performed and their effects on the cell cycle, apoptosis/necrosis events and cisplatin incorporation in cancer cells were determined.

Results: PSB 36, an A1 receptor antagonist, sensitized cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer cells to cisplatin from low to high micromolar concentrations. In contrast to PSB 36, the A2AR antagonist ZM 241385 had the opposite effect and reduced the influence of cisplatin on cancer cells, increasing their resistance to cisplatin cytotoxicity, decreasing cisplatin uptake, inhibiting cisplatin-induced cell cycle arrest, and partly restoring mitochondrial and plasma membrane potentials that were disturbed by cisplatin.

Conclusion: Adenosine analogues can modulate considerable sensitivity to cisplatin of ovarian cancer cells resistant to cisplatin. The possible direct beneficial or adverse effects of adenosine analogues on cancer cell biology should be considered in the context of supportive chemotherapy for ovarian cancer.
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Keywords: Adenosine analogues; antagonism; cisplatin resistance; combination index; ovarian cancer; synergism

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: March 1, 2019

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