Fabricating Long Shelf Life Potentiometric Urea Biosensors Using Modified MWCNTs on Screen Printed Electrodes
A new method was used to functionalize multiwalled carbon nanotubes with carboxylic groups (MWCNTCOOH) via simultaneous sonication and UV radiation. MWCNTCOOH modified with urease enzyme enabled immobilization of urease onto the electrode membrane without enzyme leaching. New bio-conjugated materials were deposited onto a Ag/AgCl screen printed electrode (SPE), which contained a layer of non-plasticized acrylate pH-selective membrane functioning as potentiometric urea biosensor. The optimum pH and phosphate buffer concentrations for the urea biosensor were pH 7.0 and 0.1 mM, respectively. The dynamic linear response range was from 5.0 × 10–5 M to 1.0 × 10–2 M, and we observed a Nernstian slope of 59.74 ± 0.72 mV/decade (R 2 = 0.98, n = 5). The biosensor had a detection limit of 5.0 × 10–5 M urea. Biosensor reproducibility and repeatability were 2.09% and 1.19% relative standard deviation, respectively (n = 5). The MWCNT-based potentiometric urea biosensor has negligible interference coming from Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+–, and NH+ 4 interfering cations. The biochemically modified MWCNT allowed further improvement of potentiometric urea biosensor performance in terms of response time, linear response range, and long-term stability.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2017
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