Significant Promotion to Electrical Properties of Sm Modified BaLa x Sm x TiO3 (0.001 ≤ x ≤ 0.005) Powders: A Novel Precursor Gaseous Penetration Route
Novel modification route of precursor gaseous penetration was applied to promote the electrical properties of Sm modified La and Sm co-doped BaTiO3 powders. Variations in structure, constitution, morphology, and electrical properties were investigated. The study revealed that co-doping of La and Sm each 0.3 at% decreased the resistivity of BaTiO3 powders to the minimal point of 6.41 × 106 Ω·m, and the lower point of 1.74 × 103 Ω·m was obtained by conventional gaseous penetration of Sm, however, the precursor gaseous penetration significantly declined the resistivity to lowest point of 6.27 Ω·m. The co-doping of La and Sm increased the dielectric constant and decreased the loss tangent of BaTiO3 powders, and extra high dielectric parameters were observed which was caused by percolation. Especially, the intensive tendency of metallization of BaTiO3 powders which originated from the synergistic effects during precursor gaseous penetration induced the anomalous impedance response and the complexity of resistivity-temperature response. The XRD and SEM analyses illustrated that complex reactions at grain boundary region were occurred after gaseous penetration of Sm and new compounds of Sm, SmO, and BaSmO4 were generated. Moreover, precursor gaseous penetration intensively enhanced those reactions and extra compounds of SmTiO3Cl was identified. Respectable heterogeneous appearances on the surface of modified BaTiO3 powders were considered to be caused by the novel precursor gaseous penetration route.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: January 1, 2015
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