Optimization of vertical and lateral distances between target and substrate in deposition process of CuGaSe2 thin films using one-step sputtering
Copper gallium selenide (CGS) thin films were fabricated using a combinatorial one-step sputtering process without an additional selenization process. The sample libraries as a function of vertical and lateral distance from the sputtering target were synthesized on a single soda-lime glass substrate at the substrate temperature of 500 °C employing a stoichiometric CGS single target. As we increased the vertical distance between the target and substrate, the CGS thin films had more stable and uniform characteristics in structural and chemical properties. Under the optimized conditions of the vertical distance (150 mm), the CGS thin films showed densely packed grains and large grain sizes up to 1 μm in scale with decreasing lateral distances. The composition ratio of Ga/[Cu+Ga] and Se/[Cu+Ga] showed 0.50 and 0.93, respectively, in nearly the same composition as the sputtering target. X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy revealed that the CGS thin films had a pure chalcopyrite phase without any secondary phases such as Cu–Se or ordered vacancy compounds, respectively. In addition, we found that the optical bandgap energies of the CGS thin films are shifted from 1.650 to 1.664 eV with decreasing lateral distance, showing a near-stoichiometric region with chalcopyrite characteristics.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2017
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