Electrochemical detection of heavy metal pollutant using crosslinked chitosan/carbon nanotubes thin film electrodes
In this study, copper, cadmium and lead ions were adsorbed on crosslinked chitosan-carbon nanotubes (Chit-CNT), which present diverse functional groups and may induce different adsorption mechanisms. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealed that chelation of these metals with the –NH2/–OH groups from chitosan, –COOH group from carbon nanotubes, and aqua ligands represents a possible structure of the active M2+ species in the Chit-CNT system. The electrochemical behaviors of the Chit-CNT film modified glassy carbon electrode were characterized for individual and simultaneous detection of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ in 0.2 M pH 5 acetic buffer solutions by square-wave anodic stripping voltammetry. For individual detection, the concentration range was 0.25–1.24 ppm with a detection limit of 0.1 ppm (R 2 = 0.978) for Cu2+; 1.50–4.44 ppm with a detection limit of 0.8 ppm for Cd2+ (R 2 = 0.975); and 0.63–3.70 ppm with a detection limit of 0.6 ppm for Pb2+ (R 2 = 0.972). For simultaneous detection, the sensitivities of Cd2+ and Pb2+ were enhanced in a Cd2+–Pb2+ mixture system; however, those of Pb2+ and Cu2+ were weakened in a Pb2+–Cu2+ mixture system. Furthermore, application of the lab chip sensor was investigated, and examples of in situ measurement of heavy metals in waste soil were obtained.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2017
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