Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Open Access Anatomy of high recyclability of graphene oxide based palladium nanocomposites in the Sonogashira reaction: On the nature of the catalyst deactivation

Download Article:
(PDF 2,817.9 kb)
Although graphene based palladium (Pd) nanocomposites are known as efficient catalysts in the Sonogashira C–C cross-coupling reaction, it has been reported that the catalysts are easily deactivated after several uses. To evaluate the nature of the deactivation, we have prepared Pd nanoparticles (NPs) dispersed on reduced graphene oxide (Pd/RGO) and graphene oxide (Pd/GO), and characterized their morphological and electronic structures in the recycling of the Sonogashira reactions using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Here, we demonstrate that Pd/GO revealed higher recyclability in the Sonogashira reaction when compared with Pd/RGO. The origin of the remarkable recyclability of Pd/GO is the presence of oxygen functionalities on the surface of GO, which can provide nucleation sites for the detached Pd adatoms during the Sonogashira reaction. As a result, Pd/GO can continuously promote the dispersion of smaller Pd NPs and keep providing highly reactive catalytic sites for the consecutive Sonogashira reactions. We also found strong evidence that oxidation states of Pd in the catalysts are not closely associated with catalytic efficiency and recyclability in the Sonogashira reaction.

36 References.

No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics


Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2016

More about this publication?
  • Materials Express is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal reporting emerging researches on materials science, engineering, technology and biology. Cutting-edge researches on the synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications of a very wide range of materials are covered for broad readership; from physical sciences to life sciences. In particular, the journal aims to report advanced materials with interesting electronic, magnetic, optical, mechanical and catalytic properties for industrial applications.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more