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The Antibacterial Effect of Graphene Oxide on Streptococcus mutans

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To select the optimal graphene oxide (GO) for anticaries dental applications, aqueous dispersions containing GO nanosheets with various oxygen-containing functional groups were prepared and characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy. The antibacterial effect towards Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in both planktonic and biofilm forms was studied by colony forming units (CFU) counting, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, live/dead fluorescent staining, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observation. The oxidation capacity of different GO nanosheets was examined by 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide (XTT) assay and in vitro glutathione (GSH) oxidation assay. The results indicated that GO exerted strong antibacterial activities in a concentration-dependent manner towards S. mutans in both planktonic and biofilm forms. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 40 μg/mL for planktonic S. mutans. When the concentration was higher than 80 μg/mL, 80% of the bacteria in the biofilms were devitalized. GO nanosheets with more oxygen-containing functional groups exerted higher toxicity at low concentrations. The functional groups of GO played a crucial role in its antibacterial outcome.
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Keywords: Antibacterial Activity; Biofilms; Graphene Oxide; Oxidation Stress Damage; Streptococcus mutans

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Operative Dentistry and Endodontics, Guanghua School of Stomatology and Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Stomatology, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, 510055, China

Publication date: April 1, 2020

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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