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Toxicity of Inorganic Nanoparticles Used in Targeted Drug Delivery and Other Biomedical Application: An Updated Account on Concern of Biomedical Nanotoxicology

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Nano-sized inorganic materials as inorganic nanoparticles (iNPs) are widely used for diagnostics, drug delivery and theranostics purposes at preclinical and clinical for various biomedical applications intended for human health care. Per se, iNPs offer distinctive features compared to their organic counterparts while developing imaging agents, nano-drug carriers and theranostics in many aspects. Yet, transition from laboratory to clinic for iNPs restricted or slow by the concern of toxicities around them in vivo and in vitro applications. Researchers have shown that iNPs are potentially useful from a biomedical perspective but can also give rise to unexpected and hazardous toxicities to human health in short and/or in long term exposure. iNPs can potentially cause hostile effect on cells, genetic materials, tissues, organs and proteins due to their compositions, high energy state and other unique physiochemical properties at nano-scale. The Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamics and interaction of iNPs with biological system are largely dependent on the physicochemical properties of iNPs, for instance size, shape, electric charge, chemical composition, surface structure, solubility and aggregation behaviour. Herein we discussed in detail about the toxicity issues (in-vitro and in-vivo) associated with the exposure of iNPs in biomedical applications.
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Keywords: Biomedical Nanotoxicology; Gold Nanoparticle; Graphene Nanotoxicity; Inorganic Nanotoxicity; Iron Oxide Nanoparticle; Upconverting Nanoparticles

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Pharmaceutics, College of Pharmacy, Najran University, 15 791, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2: Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, 71515, Egypt 3: Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shoolini University, Solan 173229, Himachal Pradesh, India 4: Nanomedicine Research Lab, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard 110062, New Delhi, India 5: Department of Pharmaceutics, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research (NIPER), Raebareli 229010, Uttar Pradesh, India 6: Nucleic Acids Transfer by Non Viral Methods, Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, CNRS UPR4301, Orléans, France

Publication date: August 1, 2016

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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