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Physiological Interactions of Nanoparticles in Energy Metabolism, Immune Function and Their Biosafety: A Review

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Nanoparticles owing to their unique physico-chemical properties have found its application in various biological processes, including metabolic pathways taking place within the body. This review tried to focus the involvement of nanoparticles in metabolic pathways and its influence in the energy metabolism, a fundamental criteria for the survival and physiological activity of living beings. The human body utilizes energy derived from food resources through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes, co-factors (metals, non-metals, vitamins etc.) through the metabolic pathways (glycolysis, tri carboxylic acid cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, electron transport chain, etc.) in cellular system. Energy metabolism is also involved in the immune networking of the body for self defence and against pathophysiology. The immune system comprises of different cells and tissues, bioactive molecules for self defence and to fight against diseases. In the recent times, it has been reported through in vivo and in vitro studies that nanoparticles have direct influence on body’s immune functions, and can modulate immunity by either suppressing or enhancing it. A comprehensive overview of nanoparticles and its involvement in immune function of the body in normal and pathophysiological conditions has been discussed. Considering these perspectives on nanoparticle interaction another important area which has been highlighted is the biosafety issues which are necessary before therapeutic applications. It is expected that development of physiologically compatible nanoparticles controlling energy metabolic processes, immune functions may show new dimension in the pathophysiology linked with energy and immunity.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: January 1, 2016

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  • Journal for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (JNN) is an international and multidisciplinary peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidating research activities in all areas of nanoscience and nanotechnology into a single and unique reference source. JNN is the first cross-disciplinary journal to publish original full research articles, rapid communications of important new scientific and technological findings, timely state-of-the-art reviews with author's photo and short biography, and current research news encompassing the fundamental and applied research in all disciplines of science, engineering and medicine.
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