Experimental Measurement and Analysis of Electromagnetic Communication in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Acoustic signal is the dominant wave used for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) communication. This signal faces a lot of challenges such as ambient noise, manmade noise, limited bandwidth (BW), and low propagation speed. These challenges become more severe in shallow water
environments due to the presence of a high level of sediments, turbidity and multipath. Due to these technical issues, acoustic signal can be replaced by electromagnetic signals for UWSNs in this type of hostile environment. The results of two measurement campaigns (in freshwater and seawater)
for UWSNs at 2.4 GHz are presented in this paper. Low range is permitted for communication in freshwater and lower for seawater. The maximum communication range in the freshwater case was registered to 14.4 cm for 10 cm deployment depth. Seawater results shows that 5 cm is the maximum range
for 2 cm depth. It is seen that the low range permitted in fresh water can be applicable for large scale motes deployment with short separation distances. On the other hand, the sea water measurements show very short communication range in this frequency due to high water conductivity. Based
on these observations, a correction factor has been incorporated in the general path loss prediction model for underwater EM communication in the freshwater case, where a third order polynomial approximates this factor.
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Underwater Electromagnetic Communication;
Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks
Document Type: Research Article
Wireless Communication Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Ilorin, P.M.B.1515, Ilorin, Nigeria
Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Built Environment, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia
UTM MIMOS CoE in Telecommunication Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia
Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia
December 1, 2015
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