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Experimental Measurement and Analysis of Electromagnetic Communication in Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

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Acoustic signal is the dominant wave used for underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSNs) communication. This signal faces a lot of challenges such as ambient noise, manmade noise, limited bandwidth (BW), and low propagation speed. These challenges become more severe in shallow water environments due to the presence of a high level of sediments, turbidity and multipath. Due to these technical issues, acoustic signal can be replaced by electromagnetic signals for UWSNs in this type of hostile environment. The results of two measurement campaigns (in freshwater and seawater) for UWSNs at 2.4 GHz are presented in this paper. Low range is permitted for communication in freshwater and lower for seawater. The maximum communication range in the freshwater case was registered to 14.4 cm for 10 cm deployment depth. Seawater results shows that 5 cm is the maximum range for 2 cm depth. It is seen that the low range permitted in fresh water can be applicable for large scale motes deployment with short separation distances. On the other hand, the sea water measurements show very short communication range in this frequency due to high water conductivity. Based on these observations, a correction factor has been incorporated in the general path loss prediction model for underwater EM communication in the freshwater case, where a third order polynomial approximates this factor.
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Keywords: 2.4 GHz; Underwater Electromagnetic Communication; Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Wireless Communication Centre, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia 2: Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of Ilorin, P.M.B.1515, Ilorin, Nigeria 3: Faculty of Engineering, Technology and Built Environment, UCSI University, Kuala Lumpur 56000, Malaysia 4: UTM MIMOS CoE in Telecommunication Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia 5: Faculty of Computing, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310, Johor, Malaysia

Publication date: December 1, 2015

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  • Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience is an international peer-reviewed journal with a wide-ranging coverage, consolidates research activities in all aspects of computational and theoretical nanoscience into a single reference source. This journal offers scientists and engineers peer-reviewed research papers in all aspects of computational and theoretical nanoscience and nanotechnology in chemistry, physics, materials science, engineering and biology to publish original full papers and timely state-of-the-art reviews and short communications encompassing the fundamental and applied research.
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