Transportation particles in flows driven by nodal cilia processing D-shaped cones
Flow induced by nodal cilia is important to the left-right asymmetry at the early stage of the mammal embryos and one of the canonical motions of cilia is processing a D-shaped cone. This study is about flows induced by cilia sweeping out D-shaped cones in low Reynolds number regime. As cilia are anchored on the embryonic heart wall, a no-slip wall is considered in the system. Utilizing the regularized Stokeslet method and image system for a Stokeslet, we exam the fluid properties of flows generated by a rotating cilium, whose base is anchored to the no-slip plane. Epicycles and periodic orbits are observed from the Lagrangian fluid tracer trajectory as a nodal cilium is processing a D-shaped cone. Compared to the symmetric cones, i.e., circular cones, the deformation of cone introduces a new period of variances on the trajectories. Furthermore, the system of non-zero volume vesicles coupled with the cilia is considered. The transportation of non-zero volume vesicle itself and tracer particles in the coupled system is explored.
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