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Tranexamic Acid-Encapsulating Thermosensitive Liposomes for Site-Specific Pharmaco-Laser Therapy of Port Wine Stains

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Site-specific pharmaco-laser therapy (SSPLT) is a developmental stage treatment modality designed to non-invasively remove superficial vascular pathologies such as port wine stains (PWS) by combining conventional laser therapy with the prior administration of a prothrombotic and/or antifibrinolytic pharmaceutical-containing drug delivery system. For the antifibrinolytic SSPLT component, six different PEGylated thermosensitive liposomal formulations encapsulating tranexamic acid (TA), a potent antifibrinolytic lysine analogue, were characterized for drug:lipid ratio, encapsulation efficiency, size, endovesicular TA concentration (C TA), phase transition temperature (T m), and assayed for heat-induced TA release. Assays were developed for the quantification of liposomal TA and heat-induced TA release from two candidate formu-lations. The outcome parameters were then combined with a 3D histological reconstruction of a port wine stain biopsy to extrapolate in vivo posologies for SSPLT. The prime formulation, DPPC:DSPE-PEG2000 (96:4 molar ratio), had a drug:lipid molar ratio of 0.82, an encapsulation efficiency of 1.29%, a diameter of 155 nm, and a C TA of 214 mM. The peak TA release from this formulation (T m = 42.3 °C) comprised 96% within 2.5 min, whereas this was 94% in 2 min for DPPC:MPPC:DSPE-PEG2000 (86:10:4) liposomes (T m = 41.5 °C). Computational analysis revealed that < 400 DPPC:DSPE-PEG2000 (96:4 molar ratio) liposomes are needed to treat a PWS of 40 cm2, compared to a three-fold greater quantity of DPPC:MPPC:DSPE-PEG2000 (86:10:4) liposomes, indicating that, in light of the assayed parameters and endovascular laser-tissue interactions, the former formulation is most suitable for antifibrinolytic SSPLT. This was further confirmed with experiments involving ex vivo and in vivo liposome-platelet and liposome-red blood cell association as well as uptake and toxicity assays with cultured endothelial cells (HUVECs), macrophages (RAW 264.7), and hepatocytes (HepG2).
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Keywords: DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM; FIBRINOLYSIS; FLUORESCAMINE DERIVATIZATION; HEAT-INDUCED RELEASE; THERMOSENSITIVE LIPOSOMES

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: August 1, 2016

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  • Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (JBN) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.
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