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Improved Biocompatibility of Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) and Poly-L-Lactic Acid Blended with Nanoparticulate Amorphous Calcium Phosphate in Vascular Stent Applications

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Biodegradable polymers used as vascular stent coatings and stent platforms encounter a major challenge: biocompatibility in vivo , which plays an important role in in-stent restenosis (ISR). Co-formulating amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) into poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) or poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA) was investigated to address the issue. For stent coating applications, metal stents were coated with polyethylene-co-vinyl acetate/poly-n-butyl methacrylate (PEVA/PBMA), PLGA or PLGA/ACP composites, and implanted into rat aortas for one and three months. Comparing with both PEVA/PBMA and PLGA groups after one month, the results showed that stents coated with PLGA/ACP had significantly reduced restenosis (PLGA/ACP vs. PEVA/PBMA vs. PLGA: 21.24 ± 2.59% vs. 27.54 ± 1.19% vs. 32.12 ± 3.93%, P < 0.05), reduced inflammation (1.25 ± 0.35 vs. 1.77 ± 0.38 vs. 2.30 ± 0.21, P < 0.05) and increased speed of re-endothelialization (1.78 ± 0.46 vs. 1.17 ± 0.18 vs. 1.20 ± 0.18, P < 0.05). After three months, the PLGA/ACP group still displayed lower inflammation score (1.33 ± 0.33 vs. 2.27 ± 0.55, P < 0.05) and higher endothelial scores (2.33 ± 0.33 vs. 1.20 ± 0.18, P < 0.05) as compared with the PEVA/PBMA group. Moreover, for stent platform applications, PLLA/ACP stent tube significantly reduced the inflammatory cells infiltration in the vessel walls of rabbit iliac arteries relative to their PLLA cohort (NF-κB-positive cells: 23.31 ± 2.33/mm2 vs. 9.34 ± 1.35/mm2, P < 0.05). No systemic biochemical or pathological evidence of toxicity was found in either PLGA/ACP or PLLA/ACP. The co-formulation of ACP into PLGA and PLLA resulted in improved biocompatibility without systemic toxicity.
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Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: June 1, 2014

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  • Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (JBN) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.
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