Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Isoflurane-Loaded Nanoemulsion Prepared by High-Pressure Homogenization: Investigation of Stability and Dose Reduction in General Anesthesia

Buy Article:

$106.67 + tax (Refund Policy)

Isoflurane is a halogenated ether which is used for general anesthesia. To stabilize a new formulation in order to evaluate the potential to reduce the dose required for general anesthesia, an isoflurane-loaded nanoemulsion was proposed. A high-pressure homogenization technique was used to develop drug-loaded nanoemulsions which presented droplet size of 150±0.78 nm with a narrow size distribution and low polydispersity index (0.08±0.01). The zeta potential was −18±2.4 mV and pH was 6.03±0.04. Rheological analysis showed Newtonian behavior for the formulations, whose physical stability was confirmed by multiple light scattering. It was verified that isoflurane volatilization did not occur in these formulations. The preclinical evaluation, carried out via the end-tidal isoflurane concentration, showed that the dose required for anesthetic maintenance significantly decreased when the nanostructured formulation was administered compared to inhaled isoflurane. There was no significant difference (p < 0.05) between experimental groups (inhaled isoflurane and intravenous isoflurane-loaded nanoemulsion) in terms of the cardiac rate, oxygen hemoglobin saturation, and arterial blood pressure, as well as the biomarkers of renal, hepatic and skeletal muscle system functionalities. Slight tachypnea, edema, and erythema were observed after isoflurane-loaded or unloaded-nanoemulsion. The stability and significant dose reduction observed for drug-loaded nanoemulsion render this formulation a promising option for intravenous delivery of isoflurane.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics


Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: October 1, 2012

More about this publication?
  • Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (JBN) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.
  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Terms & Conditions
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more