Effect of Hydroxyapatite and -Tricalcium Phosphate Nanoparticles on Promonocytic U937 Cells
Objectives: Nanoparticles from implanted materials are reported as the main cause of implant failure. Monocytes are among the first cells to colonize the inflammatory site. We evaluated the biological effects of bone substitutes presented to U937 cells in vitro as micron- or nanometersized particles. Methods: The HA (550 nm) and -TCP (550 nm) nanoparticles were incubated with U937 cells. Cell cycle modification, specific antigens expression, and the extent of cell death were determined. Results: Firstly, by using the sulforhodamine B (SRB) test and the annexin V-FITC analysis by flow cytometry, our results provide evidence of the absence of cytotoxicity, and show that nanoparticles do not induce more apoptosis than microparticles in U937 cells. Secondly, although morphologic evidence of stimulation of U937-cells was found by confocal microscopy, neither bone substitute altered the distribution of the cells into different phases of the cell cycle (Kit Cycle Test Plus DNA). These results suggest that nanoparticles do not cause promonocyte maturation in macrophages. Thirdly, the flow cytometry results showed no differences in the expression of the adherence and activation markers. Significance: The results suggest that nanoparticles do not promote the differentiation of promonocytic U937 cells into macrophages and do not induce an enhanced inflammatory response.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: April 1, 2010
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