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Defensive Effects of Fullerene-C60 Dissolved in Squalane Against the 2,4-Nonadienal-Induced Cell Injury in Human Skin Keratinocytes HaCaT and Wrinkle Formation in 3D-Human Skin Tissue Model

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We dissolved fullerene-C60 in squalane (LipoFullerene; LF-SQ, C60-eq.: 500 ppm) and examined its defensive effects against 2,4-nonadienal (NDA)-induced cell injury in HaCaT keratinocytes and wrinkle formation in three dimensional (3D)-human skin tissue model. NDA is an analog of 4-hydroxynonenal, one of major causes for human body odor indicative of aging and a lipophilic cell injury factor. Cell viability (% of the control) decreased to 31.6% on treatment with NDA (40 M), but it increased to 66.0–97.5% when LF-SQ of 1–4% (C60-eq.: 5–20 ppm) was administered for 5 hr before NDA addition. The defensive effect by LF-SQ was superior to that of “squalane” alone at the same doses. NDA-induced DNA-fragmentation in HaCaT cells was suppressed by LF-SQ administered for 5 hr before NDA treatment, and LF-SQ protected HaCaT cells against apoptosislike cell death. LF-SQ did not appreciably defend against hydrogen peroxide, though LF-SQ effectively defended against tert-butylhydroperoxide, a type of the intermediate hydrophilicity–lipophilicity degree out of other reactive oxygen species. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that NDA caused wrinkles and abnormal scales on keratinocytes of 3D-human skin tissue model, and structural homogeneity of the interstratum was broken, any of which were, however, markedly suppressed with LF-SQ. Squalane alone exhibited defensive effect against the skin tissue injury to some extent, but which was inferior to LF-SQ. LF-SQ might effectively capture and scavenge lipid radicals generated inside the cell membrane, because squalane acts as a lipophilic carrier of C60. C60 dissolved in squalane can be expected to serve as a cosmeceutical ingredient for anti-wrinkle formation.
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Keywords: 2,4-NONADIENAL; FULLERENE-C60; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY (SEM); SQUALANE; TUNEL; WST-1

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: February 1, 2010

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  • Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology (JBN) is a peer-reviewed multidisciplinary journal providing broad coverage in all research areas focused on the applications of nanotechnology in medicine, drug delivery systems, infectious disease, biomedical sciences, biotechnology, and all other related fields of life sciences.
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