Defensive Effects of Fullerene-C60 Dissolved in Squalane Against the 2,4-Nonadienal-Induced Cell Injury in Human Skin Keratinocytes HaCaT and Wrinkle Formation in 3D-Human Skin Tissue Model
We dissolved fullerene-C60 in squalane (LipoFullerene; LF-SQ, C60-eq.: 500 ppm) and examined its defensive effects against 2,4-nonadienal (NDA)-induced cell injury in HaCaT keratinocytes and wrinkle formation in three dimensional (3D)-human skin tissue model. NDA is an analog of 4-hydroxynonenal, one of major causes for human body odor indicative of aging and a lipophilic cell injury factor. Cell viability (% of the control) decreased to 31.6% on treatment with NDA (40 M), but it increased to 66.0–97.5% when LF-SQ of 1–4% (C60-eq.: 5–20 ppm) was administered for 5 hr before NDA addition. The defensive effect by LF-SQ was superior to that of “squalane” alone at the same doses. NDA-induced DNA-fragmentation in HaCaT cells was suppressed by LF-SQ administered for 5 hr before NDA treatment, and LF-SQ protected HaCaT cells against apoptosislike cell death. LF-SQ did not appreciably defend against hydrogen peroxide, though LF-SQ effectively defended against tert-butylhydroperoxide, a type of the intermediate hydrophilicity–lipophilicity degree out of other reactive oxygen species. The scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that NDA caused wrinkles and abnormal scales on keratinocytes of 3D-human skin tissue model, and structural homogeneity of the interstratum was broken, any of which were, however, markedly suppressed with LF-SQ. Squalane alone exhibited defensive effect against the skin tissue injury to some extent, but which was inferior to LF-SQ. LF-SQ might effectively capture and scavenge lipid radicals generated inside the cell membrane, because squalane acts as a lipophilic carrier of C60. C60 dissolved in squalane can be expected to serve as a cosmeceutical ingredient for anti-wrinkle formation.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: February 1, 2010
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