Rural Area Residency Associated with Epithelial Cervical Cell Infection Occurrences Among Balinese Women (2013–2016)
Background: Pap smear test has been used as a worldwide method for an early screening and detection on cervical cancer and any kind of cervical abnormality lesions. Indonesia as a country with the double burden disease has an increased prevalence of NCDs including cervical cancer, despite the ongoing high prevalence of infectious diseases, like women’ urogenital tract infection. This study aimed to show the descriptive pattern of the Pap smear testing results within Balinese women with its demographic factor influences on the result obtained. Method: An analytical study was conducted on 229 Balinese women with Pap smear test findings from social early detection program by Kompak FK Unud in conjunction with Prima Medika Hospital. Pap smear test was held on four distinct time points (2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016), in four distinct locations (rural Gianyar, urban Gianyar, Denpasar, Klungkung) which then clustered into an urban area and rural area. Data obtained was analyzed into multivariate analysis. Results: Atypical squamous cell (cancer suspected) result (3 cases, 1.3%) was founded in rural Gianyar. After histopathological result grouping, inflammation without unspecified cause was the most cases derived (49.3%), followed by inflammation with certain pathogens (infection, 30.1% and normal, 20.5%). Suggestive cervical infection was significantly associated with location category (rural area) (p = 0.000; aOR= 3.159) and non atrophy finding. Conclusion: Balinese women in rural area were at higher risk of cervical epithelial cell infection compare to Balinese women in urban areas. Further study and intervention for the hygiene and safe sexual activity comprehension was recommended.
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Document Type: Research Article
Affiliations: Medical Students, Udayana University, Denpasar, 80232, Indonesia
Publication date: April 1, 2017
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