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Antenatal Depression and Its Determinant Factors in Urban Community Setting

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Background: Antenatal depression occurs in nearly 20% of pregnancies. There are various risk factors associated with antenatal depression. This study determined the risk factors for antenatal depression in urban community setting. Method: There were 107 pregnant mothers with median age 28 years old who utilized maternal health services in Primary Health Care of Matraman during April–August 2016. A cross sectional study with consecutive sampling method was used. Demographical characteristics were collected using identity form. Antenatal depression was determined using self-report questionnaire of Lembar Pengenalan Gejala Depresi with cut off ≥5 for the presence of depression, social support using Dukungan Sosial questionnaire, relationship situation with husband using Kesesuaian Hubungan Suami Istri questionnaire, and level of stress experienced in the past years using Holmes–Rahe questionnaire. Respondents took 25 minutes to complete the questionnaires. Data were analyzed using chi-square and logistic regression with 95% of confidence interval. Results: Antenatal depression occurred in 15% among the subjects. The risk for antenatal depression was five times higher in pregnant mothers with poor social support (OR: 4.79; 95% CI 1.18–19.43, p = 0.028) and 14 times higher than those with stress (OR: 14.04; 95% CI 2.41–81.97, p = 0.003). Conclusion: Psychosocial situation played major roles in determining antenatal depression. Poor social support increased risk of antenatal depression and stress during pregnancy. Identification of antenatal depression and its determinants is important to ensure a safe motherhood journey.
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Keywords: Antenatal Depression; Pregnancy; Risk Factors; Stress; Urban Setting

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: Department of Psychiatry, RSCM-FKUI, Jakarta, 10430, Indonesia

Publication date: April 1, 2017

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