Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) cause malaria mortality. Anti-plasmodial and immunomodulatory properties of A. muricata-leaf extract (AME) may provide benefices for CM-patients. IFN-γ, a pivotal cytokine in the CM-immunopathology, is modulated by CXCL9, IL-10 and
IL-12. The study objective was to determine factors correlated with spleen-IFN-γ production in health and CM phase with/without ethanolic AME treatment. Method: A post test only controls group design study using 36 Swiss mice randomly divided into 6 groups was performed.
The Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-inoculated and healthy mice were grouped in C(+) and C(−). The healthy mice treated with AME 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW/day were grouped in X
1 and X
2. The PbA-inoculated and received either AME dose was grouped in
3 and X
4. Phytohemagglutinin (PHA) induced spleenocyte IFN-γ production, while lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced IL-10, IL-12 and CXCL9. Elisa was used to measure the observed cytokine production. One-way ANOVA and post hoc test were applied
in normally distributed data; otherwise, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney test were used. Results: IFN-γ was significantly lower in C(+), X
3 and X
4 than C(−) group, and this was also observed in CXCL9. IL-10 was significantly higher
3 and X
4 than C(+) group (p = 0.003 and p = 0.004). IL-12 was not different among all six groups (p = 0.071). Spearman correlation test showed a correlation between IFN-γ and CXCL9 produced during CM-phase regardless
AME treatment (r = 0.581; p = 0.009), while IFN-γ was correlated with IL-10 levels in healthy groups with/without AME treatment (r = 0.544; p = 0.029). Conclusion: The reduce spleen-IFN-γ production might regulate differently in
health and CM phase.
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Document Type: Research Article
Parasitology Department Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
Biomedical Science Post Graduate Program of Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50231, Indonesia
Pharmacology Department Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
Biostatistics Department Public Health Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
Publication date: April 1, 2017
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