Annona muricata Associated with Reduced Macrophage Phagocytic Index of Swiss Mice During Cerebral Malaria Phase
Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) is mostly fatal case. Anti-plasmodial and immunomodulatory effects of Annona muricata-leaf extract (AME) might avoid CM. Immunomodulatory treatment which increased macrophage-phagocytic index (PI) and macrophage nitric oxide (NO) production,
related to the increase survival of experimental (E)CM. The objectives were to determine whether ethanolic-AME influenced PI, NO-production, and correlate PI and NO-production with parasitemia during CM-phase. Method: A post-test only control group design-study was done. Thirty swiss-mice
were randomly divided into 6 groups, PbA-inoculated and healthy mice grouped in C(+) and C(−); healthy mice treated with A. muricata 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW/day named as X
1 and X
2; PbA-inoculated and treated either dose mentioned above grouped
3 and X
4. Light microscope was used to observe parasitemia and PI. NO was measured using elisa. One-Way Anova and Benfereoni-post-hoc test were performed for normally-distributed data. Pearson test was done for analyzing correlation between variables.
Results: Parasitemia-percentage and NO production were not different among PbA-inoculated groups (p = 0.916 and p = 1.000). NO produced in each of C(+), X
3 and X
4 group was significantly lower than C(−) (p < 0.0001).
PI of X
3 was significantly lower than C(−) group (p = 0.022). Activated-macrophage NO production correlated strongly with parasitemia-percentage in X
3 group (r = 0.852, p = 0.015). Conclusion: The conclusions were AME treatment
at any dose studied might not improve NO-production and decrease parasitemia-percentage of swiss mice during CM phase. Dose of 100 mg/kg BW/day AME might reduce PI below normal during CM-phase. This dose might contribute to a strong correlation between NO production and parasitemia percentage.
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Document Type: Research Article
Parasitology Department Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
Biomedical Science Post Graduate Program of Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50231, Indonesia
Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
Biostatistic Department Public Health Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia
Publication date: April 1, 2017
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