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Annona muricata Associated with Increase Phytohemaglutinin Induced Spleen IL-10 Production of Swiss Mice During Cerebral Malaria Phase

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Background: Cerebral malaria (CM) prompts patient death. A. muricata-leaf extract (AME) having anti-plasmodial and immunomodulatory properties may provide advantages for malaria-endemic communities. Anemia of CM-patients is due to reduce interleukine (IL)-10 and increase macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) production which interfere erythropoiesis. The objective of the study was to determine whether AME influenced spleen-IL-10 and MIF production and Hb or erythrocyte counts during CM-phase. Method: A post test only control group design study was done by using 30 swiss mice which were randomly divided into 6 groups. The C(+) and C(−) groups were Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-inoculated and healthy-mice. Healthy-X 1 and X 2 groups received ethanolic-AME 100 and 150 mg/Kg BW/day. PbA-inoculated X 3 and X 4 groups received either AME dose. IL-10 and MIF produced by splenocytes stimulated with phytohemaglutinin (PHA) or lipopolysacharide (LPS) ex-vivo, were measured by Elisa. Hb and erythrocyte counts were measured by automatic haematology analyzer. Results: IL-10 was tested by Kruskal-Wallis (p < 0.0001), then Mann-Whitney showed a significantly higher IL-10 of X 3, X 4 than C(+) group (p = 0.003 and p = 0.017). PHA and LPS-induced splenocyte MIF production were tested by One-way ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis (p = 0.176 and p = 0.413). Mann-Whitney test showed a lower Hb of C(+), X 3 and X 4 than C(−) groups (p = 0.045, p = 0.038, and p = 0.016). Erythrocyte counts were not different among 6 groups studied (p = 0.072). IL-10 and MIF had no correlation with Hb or erythrocyte counts during CM-phase. The conclusion is that AME associates with the increase spleen-IL-10 production during CM-phase. The spleen-IL-10 and MIF might not influence Hb and erythrocyte counts during CM-phase. Conclusion: AME associates with the increase spleen-IL-10 production during CM-phase. The spleen-IL-10 and MIF might not influence Hb and erythrocyte counts during CM-phase.
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Keywords: Annona muricata; Cerebral Malaria; IL-10; MIF

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Parasitology Department, Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia 2: Biomedical Science Post Graduate Program, Medical Faculty Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50231, Indonesia 3: Medical Faculty, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia 4: Biostatistic Department, Public Health Faculty, Diponegoro University, Semarang, 50275, Indonesia

Publication date: April 1, 2017

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