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Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) Cases in Semarang City are Related to Air Temperature, Humidity, and Rainfall

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Background: Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) is an infectious disease caused by dengue virus and transmitted through the bite of mosquito Aedes aegypti. Spreading of DHF and the occurrence of DHF cases are strongly influenced by climate, but the relationship is not simple. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationship of DHF cases in Semarang city to air temperature, humidity, and rainfall in Semarang City (from January 2011 to April 2016). Method: The rainfall data were obtained from 9 monitoring stations, while the air temperature and humidity data were obtained from 1 monitoring station (Meteorology, Climatology and Geophysics Board of Semarang City) from January 2011 to April 2016. The data of DHF cases (9,294 patients) were collected from Health Office of Semarang City. A relationship between two variables i.e., air temperature, air humidity, or rainfall with DHF cases was analyzed by Rank Spearman correlation test. Results: The highest number of DHF cases yearly was found during January to April. The range of recorded air temperature i.e., 25.9 to 30.1°C, correlation analyses showed that lower air temperature increased the number DHF cases or higher air temperature reduced the number of DHF cases (p = 0.0001; r = −0.425). However, higher humidity (p = 0.0001; r = 0.659) and rainfall (p = 0.0001; r = 0.465) increased the number of DHF cases. Conclusion: Higher air temperature reduced the number DHF cases, but higher humidity and rainfall increased the number of DHF cases.
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Keywords: Air Temperature; Climate; Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever; Humidity; Rainfall

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Public Health Faculty, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia 2: Faculty of Animal Science and Agriculture, Diponegoro University, Jl. Prof. Soedarto, SH, Tembalang, Semarang 50275, Indonesia

Publication date: April 1, 2017

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