Micrometeorological Technique for Estimation of Nitrate Dry Deposition Over Forest in Tropical Climatology
The relaxed eddy accumulation (REA), a direct method to determine dry deposition flux was applied for estimation of nitrate aerosol flux over the dipterocarp forest in humid environment in Thailand. The micrometeorological parameters, i.e., wind speed, precipitation, humidity and ambient temperature including REA system for flux estimation were measured real time. The concentration of nitrate was collected by four–stages filter packs in the daytime from 6.00–18.00 (the filter was exchanged at 12.00) for three days. The sampling times were classified as wet season (August 2009) and dry season (December 2009). The nitrate concentrations were observed higher in the dry season (2.65 ± 0.76 μg m−3) than the wet season (0.47 ± 0.27 μg m−3). The dry deposition fluxes were calculated to be 0.01 ± 0.01 μg m−2 s−1 for the wet season and 0.12 ± 0.02 μg m−2 s−1 for the dry season. The average deposition velocities of nitrate were found to be 2.27 cm s−1 and 4.38 cm s−1 in the wet and the dry season, respectively. Micrometeorological parameters, particularly the vertical wind magnitude, air temperature and humidity have substantial influences on the dry deposition. The vertical wind affected the turbulent transfer of nitrate through the surface layer of air above the forest. Generally, incline of air temperature and humidity in tropical climatology increased the chemical reactivity of hygroscopic which in turns increased the deposition velocity of nitrate.
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: September 1, 2013
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