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Commuting between Rural and Urban Areas: Evidence from India

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This paper is an attempt to extend the dialogue on the nature of commuting between rural and urban areas and its implications for labour market outcomes in rural and urban India. We show that over the period 2004–2005 to 2011–2012, the magnitude of commuting workers has not changed but the composition has changed with reduction in rural no fixed place workers and increase in urban-no fixed place workers. We further highlight that rural–urban commuting can be considered mobility for better opportunities on account of diversification of livelihood strategy and underemployment in rural areas.


Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2019

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  • Built Environment is published quarterly in March, June, September and December. With an emphasis on crossing disciplinary boundaries and providing global perspective, each issue focuses on a single subject of contemporary interest to practitioners, academics and students working in a wide range of disciplines. Issues are guest-edited by established international experts who not only commission contributions, but also oversee the peer-reviewing process in collaboration with the Editors.

    Subject areas include: architecture; conservation; economic development; environmental planning; health; housing; regeneration; social issues; spatial planning; sustainability; urban design; and transport. All issues include reviews of recent publications.

    The journal is abstracted in Geo Abstracts, Sage Urban Studies Abstracts, and Journal of Planning Literature, and is indexed in the Avery Index to Architectural Publications.

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