Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Open Access Urethral Obstruction by Seminal Coagulum is Associated with Medetomidine–Ketamine Anesthesia in Male Mice on C57BL/6J and Mixed Genetic Backgrounds

Download Article:
(PDF 74.3 kb)
Male and female mice were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection with a mixture delivering 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine and 50 mg/kg ketamine to achieve immobilization for whole-body radiographs and bone densitometry, as part of a phenotypic screen for bone and mineral disorders in mice carrying genetic modifications induced through mutagenesis with N′-ethyl-N′-nitrosourea. Morbidity and mortality occurred in 19 of 628 (3%) of male mice 24 to 72 h after a seemingly uneventful recovery from anesthesia. No morbidity or mortality occurred in 1564 female mice that were similar in age to the affected male mice and that underwent the same procedure. Of the 7 male mice that underwent postmortem examinations, 5 had urinary bladders grossly distended with urine and 1 had ascites. In addition, the pelvic or penile urethra in 5 of the examined male mice was obstructed with seminal coagulum associated with varying degrees of erosion of the urothelial lining and inflammation of the urethra. In 2 of these animals, from which plasma samples were recovered, azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia were present. The predilection for delayed morbidity and mortality in males after anesthesia suggests that anesthesia with 0.5 mg/kg medetomidine and 50 mg/kg ketamine is a potential risk factor for obstructive uropathy due to release of seminal coagulum. This adverse effect did not recur when we altered our anesthesia protocol to 10 mg/kg xylazine and 100 mg/kg ketamine.

9 References.

No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Document Type: Case Report

Affiliations: Mary Lyon Centre, MRC Harwell, Oxfordshire, United Kingdom

Publication date: May 1, 2009

More about this publication?
  • The Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (JAALAS) serves as an official communication vehicle for the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science (AALAS). The journal includes a section of refereed articles and a section of AALAS association news. The mission of the refereed section of the journal is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information on animal biology, technology, facility operations, management, and compliance as relevant to the AALAS membership. JAALAS accepts research reports (data-based) or scholarly reports (literature-based), with the caveat that all articles, including solicited manuscripts, must include appropriate references and must undergo peer review.

    Attention Members: To access the full text of the articles, be sure you are logged in to the AALAS website.

    Attention: please note, due to a temporary technical problem, reference linking within the content is not available at this time

  • Editorial Board
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Membership Information
  • Information for Advertisers
  • For issues prior to 1997
  • Institutional Subscription Activation
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more