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Open Access Single-photon Emission Computed Tomography–Computed Tomography Using 99mTc-labeled Leukocytes for Evaluating Infection Associated with a Cranial Implant in a Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta)

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An adult male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) that was enrolled in a study evaluating cognition and memory presented with suppurative exudate along the margins of a long-standing cranial implant that included a stainless-steel head post, plastic left-sided recording cylinder, and acrylic over a previously placed right-sided recording cylinder. Both cylinders were located at the level of the prefrontal cortex. After treatment comprising systemic antibiotics and daily cleaning with povidone–iodine for several months, the macaque underwent single-photon emission computed tomography-computed tomography (SPECT-CT) in which his neutrophils were labeled with 99mTc–hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO) to evalu- ate for active infection below the implant. Soft tissue inflammation and osteomyelitis were found at the site of the previous right-sided recording cylinder. Cephalosporin and tetracycline antibiotics were administered for 12 wk. Follow-up SPECT-CT imaging was then performed to evaluate response to medical treatment. Results indicated no change in the degrees of soft tissue inflammation and osteomyelitis associated with the right-sided recording cylinder site. SPECT-CT imaging was used to guide the surgical removal of the implant and debridement of the infected tissue. On removal of the entire cranial implant, the osteomyelitis and soft tissue inflammation observed on the pre- and posttreatment SPECT-CT scans were confirmed. In addition, a large cavitary defect through the calvarium with suppurative exudate was discovered below the base of the head post. Infection in this defect was not apparent on SPECT; however, the bony defect was confirmed on reevaluation of the CT images. We concluded that the infection in this defect was silent on SPECT due to the limited vascularization of the sur-rounding bone and the chronicity of the infection. This case study is the first to describe the use of SPECT-CT for evaluating soft tissue inflammation and osteomyelitis beneath a cranial implant in a NHP.

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Document Type: Case Report

Affiliations: 1: Department of Comparative Medicine 2: Department of Comparative Medicine, Email: [email protected] 3: Section of Cardiovascular Medicine, Department of Medicine, Yale Translational Research Imaging Center, Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut 4: Departments of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut

Publication date: June 1, 2019

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  • Comparative Medicine (CM), an international journal of comparative and experimental medicine, is the leading English-language publication in the field and is ranked by the Science Citation Index in the upper third of all scientific journals. The mission of CM is to disseminate high-quality, peer-reviewed information that expands biomedical knowledge and promotes human and animal health through the study of laboratory animal disease, animal models of disease, and basic biologic mechanisms related to disease in people and animals.

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