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Medicaid Expansion at Title X Clinics

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Title X supports access to family planning and preventive care services. Given its focus on low-income clients, Title X clinics may have been particularly affected by the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion.


To examine the impact of the Affordable Care Act’s Medicaid expansion on Title X client volumes, health insurance coverage, and contraceptive method mix.

Research Design:

A difference-in-differences design compared changes in the outcomes of interest before and after expansion, for expansion versus nonexpansion states.


Administrative data from Family Planning Annual Reports that describe Title X clients who sought services.


Female client volume was measured using a participation ratio defined as the number of female clients per 100 women aged 15–44 with incomes <250% of the federal poverty line. We also examined the share of clients by insurance type and contraceptive method type.


We did not find evidence that expansion was related to changes in client volume. We did find a significant 9.9 percentage point increase in the share of clients with Medicaid and a significant 10.0 percentage point decrease in the share of clients without coverage. We found suggestive evidence that expansion was associated with increased use of long-acting reversible contraceptives, but those results were somewhat sensitive to model specification.


Expansion was associated with meaningful increases in Medicaid coverage at Title X clinics and declines in uninsurance. Our results have important implications for the financial stability of Title X clinics in light of historical declines in Title X grant revenues.
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Keywords: Family Planning; Medicaid; Title X

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: School of Public Health, University of Maryland, College Park, MD

Publication date: June 1, 2019

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