Severe Hemorrhage in Chinese Children With Immune Thrombocytopenia
To better understand the clinical features, therapy, and clinical outcome of Chinese patients with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) who suffered severe hemorrhage, we retrospectively analyzed 663 children with ITP diagnosed in our hospital during the last 10 years. Of the total 663 patients enrolled in our study, 520 were eligible for bleeding severity assessment, of which 20 children (3.8%) had severe bleeding, including intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) (n=9), gastrointestinal hemorrhage (n=6), massive epistaxis (n=3), urinary tract hemorrhage (n=1), and pulmonary hemorrhage (n=1). The age at diagnosis of severe hemorrhage ranged from 47 days to 14 years. Thirteen patients were newly diagnosed with ITP, 3 had persistent ITP, and 4 had chronic ITP. The latency between the onset of ITP and severe bleeding ranged from 6 hours to 10 years. The median platelet count at the time of severe hemorrhage was 6.5×109/L (range, 0 to 32×109/L). Most patients with severe hemorrhage were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (90%), corticosteroids (65%), or both (60%). Two patients (10%) died because of ICH and pulmonary hemorrhage, respectively. Four patients (20%) recovered from thrombocytopenia. Our observation showed that severe hemorrhage is rare but can occur anywhere and at any time during the course of ITP. The majority of children with ITP in China should be observed rather than treated.
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