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Fecal Microbiota Differences According to the Risk of Advanced Colorectal Neoplasms

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Goals and Background:

This study aimed to compare differences in the fecal microbiota according to the risk of advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) based on a risk-score model in a large Korean cohort.

Study:

Stool samples were collected from 1122 health screening recipients: 404 enrolled in the average risk (AR) group, 514 in the moderate risk (MR) group, and 204 in the high risk (HR) group, in accordance with their risk of ACN. The fecal microbiota was characterized using pyrosequencing of the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA genes.

Results:

The overall microbial diversity was significantly reduced with an increased risk of ACN [false discovery rate (FDR), P<0.001], and the composition was significantly different between the risk groups (Bonferroni corrected, P<0.05). On taxonomic comparison, 6 of 11 phyla and 39 of 88 genera were significantly different among the risk groups (all FDR P<0.05). These included under-representation of Bacteroides, Ruminococcus, and Bifidobacterium, and over-representation of Prevotella and Fusobacterium with an increased risk of ACN. In particular, we observed that the unknown genus of Ruminococcaceae were relatively abundant (16.2%) in the AR group and significantly depleted with an increased risk of ACN (13.5% in the HR group; FDR P<0.001).

Conclusions:

These findings support the hypothesis that the fecal microbiota is different according to the risk of ACN. An unknown genus of Ruminococcaceae, as novel potential butyrate producers, might have a possible role in colorectal tumorigenesis in the Korean population.
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Keywords: colorectal neoplasm; gut microbiota; mass screening; pyrosequencing; risk assessment

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine and Gastrointestinal Cancer Center 2: Department of Laboratory Medicine 3: Center for Cohort Studies, Total Healthcare Center, Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Department of Clinical Research Design & Evaluation, SAIHST, Sungkyunkwan University 4: Functional Genome Institute, PDXen Biosystems Inc. 5: Department of Biochemistry, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea

Publication date: March 1, 2019

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