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Clinical and Microbiological Effect of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplementation in Celiac Patients With Persistent IBS-type Symptoms

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Goals:

The goals of this study were to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a probiotic mixture in patients with celiac disease (CD) with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)-type symptoms despite a strict gluten-free diet (GFD).

Background:

About 30% of patients with CD adherent to a GFD suffer from IBS-type symptoms; a possible cause resides in the imbalances of the intestinal microbiota in CD. Probiotics may represent a potential treatment.

Study:

CD patients with IBS-type symptoms entered a prospective, double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled study. A 6-week treatment period was preceded by a 2-week run-in and followed by a 6-week follow-up phase. Clinical data were monitored throughout the study by validated questionnaires: IBS Severity Scoring System (IBS-SSS); Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS); Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS); and IBS Quality of Life Questionnaire (IBS-QOL). The fecal microbiota were assayed using plate counts and 16S rRNA gene-based analysis.

Results:

In total, 109 patients were randomized to probiotics (n=54) or placebo (n=55). IBS-SSS and GSRS decreased significantly in probiotics, as compared with placebo [(−15.9%±14.8% vs. 8.2%±25.9%; P<0.001) and (−19.8%±16.6% vs. 12.9%±31.6%; P<0.001)], respectively. Treatment success was significantly higher in patients receiving probiotics, as compared with placebo (15.3% vs. 3.8%; P<0.04). Presumptive lactic acid bacteria, Staphylococcus and Bifidobacterium, increased in patients receiving probiotic treatment. No adverse events were reported.

Conclusions:

A 6-week probiotic treatment is effective in improving the severity of IBS-type symptoms, in CD patients on strict GFD, and is associated with a modification of gut microbiota, characterized by an increase of bifidobacteria.
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Keywords: celiac disease; gluten-free diet; gut microbiota; probiotics

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: 1: Department of Interdisciplinary Medicine 2: Department of Soil, Plant and Food Science 3: IRCCS “Saverio De Bellis,” Castellana Grotte 4: Gastroenterology Unit, PO Centrale Taranto, Taranto 5: Department of Pediatrics, PO San Paolo, Bari 6: Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari Aldo Moro 7: Faculty of Science and Technology, Piazza Università, Free University of Bozen, Bolzano, Italy

Publication date: March 1, 2019

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