Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

Increased Immune Activation and Exhaustion in HIV-infected Youth

Buy Article:

$62.00 + tax (Refund Policy)


Immune activation and exhaustion drive several comorbidities and disease progression in HIV-infected adults; however, they are not well studied in HIV-infected youth. Thus, this study sought to examine levels of immune activation and exhaustion in this population, investigate associated HIV- and non-HIV-related variables and compare results with a matched healthy control group.


HIV-infected youth 8–25 years of age on stable antiretroviral therapy with an HIV-1 RNA level <1000 copies/mL were enrolled, along with matched healthy controls. We measured T-cell and monocyte immune activation and exhaustion markers in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma samples.


A total of 136 subjects (80 HIV+: 66% male; 91% black) were enrolled. Markers of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation were higher in the HIV-infected group versus controls [mean % CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+ and CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+ = 2.2 versus 1.5 (P=0.002) and 4.9 versus 2.2 (P<0.0001), respectively], as were exhausted CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells [mean % CD4+CD38+HLA-DR+PD-1+ and CD8+CD38+HLA-DR+PD-1+ = 1.0 versus 0.5 (P<0.0001) and 1.6 versus 0.7 (P<0.0001), respectively]. There were no differences in proportions of inflammatory or patrolling monocytes between groups (P>0.05); however, soluble CD14 was higher in HIV-infected compared with controls (1.6 versus 1.4 µg/mL; P=0.01). Current CD4 count, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and age were the variables most associated with CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell activation.


CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell immune activation and exhaustion are higher in HIV-infected youth compared with matched controls, while monocyte subpopulations are not altered despite a high soluble CD14 level. The clinical significance of the increased immune activation and exhaustion should be further explored.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: HIV; immune activation; immune exhaustion; pediatrics

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: December 1, 2016

  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more