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Simultaneous Use of Hypertonic Saline and IV Furosemide for Fluid Overload: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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OBJECTIVES:

To evaluate the efficacy of the simultaneous hypertonic saline solution and IV furosemide (HSS+Fx) for patients with fluid overload compared with IV furosemide alone (Fx).

DATA SOURCES:

Electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, PsycINFO, Scopus, and WOS) were searched from inception to March 2020.

STUDY SELECTION:

Randomized controlled trials on the use of HSS+Fx in adult patients with fluid overload versus Fx were included.

DATA EXTRACTION:

Data were collected on all-cause mortality, hospital length of stay, heart failure–related readmission, along with inpatient weight loss, change of daily diuresis, serum creatinine, and 24-hour urine sodium excretion from prior to post intervention. Pooled analysis with random effects models yielded relative risk or mean difference with 95% CIs.

DATA SYNTHESIS:

Eleven randomized controlled trials comprising 2,987 acute decompensated heart failure patients were included. Meta-analysis demonstrated that HSS+Fx was associated with lower all-cause mortality (relative risk, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.46–0.67; p < 0.05; I2 = 12%) and heart failure–related readmissions (relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.33–0.76; p < 0.05; I2 = 61%), shorter hospital length of stay (mean difference, –3.28 d; 95% CI, –4.14 to –2.43; p < 0.05; I2 = 93%), increased daily diuresis (mean difference, 583.87 mL; 95% CI, 504.92–662.81; p < 0.05; I2 = 76%), weight loss (mean difference, –1.76 kg; 95% CI, –2.52 to –1.00; p < 0.05; I2 = 57%), serum sodium change (mean difference, 6.89 mEq/L; 95% CI, 4.98–8.79; p < 0.05; I2 = 95%), and higher 24-hour urine sodium excretion (mean difference, 61.10 mEq; 95% CI, 51.47–70.73; p < 0.05; I2 = 95%), along with decreased serum creatinine (mean difference, –0.46 mg/dL; 95% CI, –0.51 to –0.41; p < 0.05; I2 = 89%) when compared with Fx. The Grading of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation certainty of evidence ranged from low to moderate.

CONCLUSIONS:

Benefits of the HSS+Fx over Fx were observed across all examined outcomes in acute decompensated heart failure patients with fluid overload. There is at least moderate certainty that HSS+Fx is associated with a reduction in mortality in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. Factors associated with a successful HSS+Fx utilization are still unknown. Current evidence cannot be extrapolated to other than fluid overload states in acute decompensated heart failure.

Keywords: fluid therapy; furosemide; heart failure; hypertonic saline solution; systematic review

Document Type: Research Article

Affiliations: ,

Publication date: October 14, 2021

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