Mismatch repair deficient (dMMR) colorectal cancer (CRC) despite its association with poor histologic grade often has improved prognosis compared with MMR proficient CRC. Tumor budding and poorly differentiated clusters (PDCs) may predict metastatic potential of colorectal adenocarcinoma
(CRC). In addition, their assessment may be more reproducible than the evaluation of other histopathologic parameters. Therefore, we wished to determine their potential as prognostic indicators in a cohort of dMMR CRC patients relative to histologic grade. We investigated the predictive value
of conventional WHO grade, budding, PDC grade and other histopathologic parameters on the presence of lymph node metastasis (LNM) and clinical outcome in 238 dMMR CRCs. MMR status was determined by immunohistochemistry for the mismatch repair proteins hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, and hPMS2. Tumor
budding and PDCs were highly correlated (r=0.701; P<0.000). Both budding and PDC grade were associated with WHO grade, perineural invasion, lympho-vascular invasion, and extramural vascular invasion, and the presence of LNM in dMMR CRC (P<0.009). Independent predictors
of LNM were PDC grade (odds ratio, 4.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.69-10.04; P=0.011) and EMVI (odds ratio, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.56-9.19; P<0.000). Only pTstage (hazard ratio [HR], 4.11; 95% CI, 1.48-11.36; P=0.007) and tumor budding (HR, 2.99; 95% CI, 1.72-5.19; P<0.000)
were independently associated with worse disease-free survival (DFS). If tumor budding was excluded from the model, PDC grade became significant for DFS (HR, 2.34; 95% CI, 1.34-4.09; P=0.003). WHO Grade does not independently correlate with clinical outcome in dMMR CRC. PDC grade and
extramural vascular invasion are independent predictors of LNM. Tumor budding and pTstage are the best predictors of DFS. If tumor budding cannot be assessed, PDC grade may be used as a prognostic surrogate.
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immune checkpoint inhibition;
poorly differentiated clusters;
prognostic histopathologic markers;
Document Type: Research Article
Departments of Surgery, Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Elm Park
School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
Departments of Surgery, Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Elm Park, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
Centre for Colorectal Disease, St. Vincent’s University Hospital, Elm Park, Histopathology, School of Medicine and Medical Sciences, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
Publication date: January 1, 2018