Skip to main content
padlock icon - secure page this page is secure

The public lavatory of Tianjin: A change of urban faeces disposal in the process of modernisation

Buy Article:

$15.48 + tax (Refund Policy)

There is no question that public lavatories are an essential part of a modern city's sanitation facilities and a crucial part of urban faeces disposal. In traditional Chinese thought, faeces are associated with wealth, as they can be used as a natural fertiliser. As such, public lavatories are also considered a useful place to store human excrement for agricultural purposes. During the first half of the twentieth century, the city of Tianjin, China, was experiencing modernisation for the first time: new sanitary control systems were being built, water and sewage systems were gradually improving and modern concepts of sanitation, including public lavatories, assumed an increasingly important role in society. The public lavatory can be viewed as a sign of sanitation concepts and government control, as a place that reflects the technology and ideas of its time and as a crucial link between urban and rural areas within a Chinese city.
No Reference information available - sign in for access.
No Citation information available - sign in for access.
No Supplementary Data.
No Article Media
No Metrics

Keywords: Republican China; Tianjin; faeces; fenfu; fertiliser; modernisation; public lavatory; sanitation

Document Type: Research Article

Publication date: 01 April 2016

More about this publication?
  • The half-yearly journal Global Environment: A Journal of History and Natural and Social Sciences acts as a forum and echo chamber for ongoing studies on the environment and world history, with special focus on modern and contemporary topics. Our intent is to gather and stimulate scholarship that, despite a diversity of approaches and themes, shares an environmental perspective on world history in its various facets, including economic development, social relations, production government, and international relations.
  • Information for Authors
  • Submit a Paper
  • Subscribe to this Title
  • Ingenta Connect is not responsible for the content or availability of external websites
  • Access Key
  • Free content
  • Partial Free content
  • New content
  • Open access content
  • Partial Open access content
  • Subscribed content
  • Partial Subscribed content
  • Free trial content
Cookie Policy
Cookie Policy
Ingenta Connect website makes use of cookies so as to keep track of data that you have filled in. I am Happy with this Find out more