This study discusses from the perspective of environmental history the role of fig and grape cultivation in the development of Izmir into the first gateway city of the Ottoman Empire. From the 1870s on, figs and raisins were together a dynamic force promoting the opening up of hitherto
unexploited areas of Western Anatolia to commercial agriculture. Fig trees and vines were commercially grown almost everywhere in the region, from the edge of the waters of the Mediterranean to the hilltops. Rural residents reclaimed large tracts of wasteland for planting figs and vines, while
the quantity of figs and raisins annually exported amounted to thousands of tons as the introduction of railroads, formation of commercial networks, and development of processing, packing, and shipment operations facilitated their production and trade. The expansion of fig and grape growing
was an integral part of the process of Western Anatolia's integration into the market economy and is demonstrated by the railroads, stations, warehouses and packing units found in Izmir and its hinterland. Figs and grapes attracted foreign capital investment and technology, promoted trade
and stimulated the movement of people across the region. The expansion of fig and grape cultivation created seasonal employment for thousands of men and women in the city and countryside. In short, fig and grape growing across Western Anatolia had a profound impact on the region's human and
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Document Type: Research Article
Publication date: November 1, 2019
This article was made available online on June 22, 2018 as a Fast Track article with title: "Fruits of Empire: Figs, Raisins, and Transformation of Western Anatolia in the Late Nineteenth Century".
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Environment and History is an interdisciplinary journal which aims to bring scholars in the humanities and biological sciences closer together, with the deliberate intention of constructing long and well-founded perspectives on present day environmental problems.
Environment and History has a Journal Impact Factor (2018) of 0.800. 5 Year Impact Factor: 0.918.
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